Drought stricken water supply a limiting factor when grazing livestock

By Missy Hodgin
Texas AgriLife Agent

Livestock producers are becoming increasingly concerned about stock water as levels of stock ponds continue to decrease.  Some local producers are beginning to sell stock out of already diminished herds.  The fact is water can be a limiting factor when grazing livestock on rangeland.

Improper distribution of watering sites will contribute to the following:

  • Excessive grazing in areas near water sources.
  • Uneven utilization of the rangeland.
  • Livestock traveling long distances to get to water which reduces grazing time, forage intake, weight gain or milk production.
  • Loss of forage from excessive trailing and trampling.

Water consumption is influenced by the type and physiological status of livestock, nature of the forage and weather conditions.   For example, green forage is higher in moisture content than dry forage and reduces water consumption.  High temperatures increase consumption, while cool temperatures reduce consumption, and increased humidity in the air reduces daily consumption.  Water consumption increases with age, weight, pregnancy and lactation.

Rivers, streams, springs and existing stock ponds provide the least expensive source of water.  Water wells provide water in many locations where surface water is not available.  Windmills, solar powered pumps or electric submergible pumps, and piston-engine driven pumps are used to bring water to the surface.  Another option may be rainwater captured in a storage container (tank) as a supplemental or as the sole source of water for livestock.

Rainwater is done with a collection surface, conveyance to a storage tank and a watering trough.  Rainwater can be captured as run-off from a house, barn, rain barn or specially-prepared surface area on the ground.  During a one-inch (25.4 mm) rainfall, approximately 0.6 gallons of water falls on each square foot of surface area.  Runoff is collected more efficiently from smooth surfaces, such as tin roofs.  Efficiency decreases as the surface becomes rougher and more porous.  Runoff can be captured from an existing or newly constructed roof (or a “paved” area on a hillside) surface conveyed through guttering and piping, cleaned with a roof washer and/or screen, and stored in a collection tank for livestock.

The two most expensive parts of the system are the roof or paved surface and the storage tank.  If an existing system (barn roof and storage tank) is in place, the cost to add rainwater to the system is minimal.  In some areas of the western United States, the soil or rock is treated to shed water, and the run-off is collected at a low point for wildlife and/or livestock.  Storage tanks can be made of concrete, fiberglass, corrugated metal (with or without special liners), steel or polyethylene.  Polyethylene tanks are the least expensive up to approximately 4,000 gallons.  Corrugated metal tanks with special liners are also a cost effective option.  However, local availability may dictate the container choice.  Covered tanks reduce evaporation and keep water cleaner.  By using translucent material and closing the top, algae problems will be minimal because the algae must have sunlight to grow.

All livestock prefer to drink cool, clean, fresh water.  Smaller (more narrow and shallow) watering troughs allow more frequent water replacement, thus keeping water cooler and fresher.  Larger herds require more linear trough space to allow more animals to drink at the same time.  Evaluate fill rate to ensure water is readily available for livestock.  Place the water trough at a lower elevation than the tank to allow gravity flow from the tank to the trough.  If the tank and trough are at the same elevation, only the tank volume above the trough float is available water.   If the storage tank is lower than the watering trough, the water must be pumped up hill.

The amount of water needed depends on the kind of animal, number of animals, annual rainfall and the expected length of time between rainfalls.  The lower the average annual rainfall, a larger roof and storage container are needed.

Water is an issue.  And the need for it is just going to increase as the population increases.  Livestock producers and homeowners alike must continue to seek alternative sources and ways to most effectively use the valuable water that we receive.


About Author

Pioneer Sentinel

The Pioneer Sentinel is an online newspaper designed to deliver the news of Clay County, Texas, in a concise and community-friendly format.


  1. ロレックスは、世界で最も強力な腕時計のブランドです。ロレックスの腕時計が最高であることを意味しません、あるいは、彼らが最も価値があります。ブランド自体が最高値。ブランド時計 スーパーコピーそれは、この組み合わせによってmのブースと同僚のような信じられないほどの装飾的なマーケティング会社で働いて、その社内の人に加えて、かなり素敵な腕時計を持っている。秘密のロレックスの式は、多くの出来事に複製することを試みているが、成功なし。しかし、ドルの測定のためのドルの上で、ロレックスoutspendsはその競争相手のほぼ2倍でマーケティングと広告のことになる。あなたが本当に名前買います、しかし、多分、それは買う価値がある名前です。ロレックスの時計を売るとき、あなたが彼らが少ないのです、あなたは通常同じまたはより多くとして彼らを買ったとき、あなたが得ることができる。パワーがあるということです。と私は確かに私の恋人地獄を見て、それに免疫がないとしている。私はすべてのロレックスの腕時計をすることに熱心でありません、しかし、いくつかありますが、あなたが抵抗することができません。ルイ・ヴィトンコピー時計 古典的な潜水艦乗組員のデザインを一般的に魅力的であることが正気の恋人を否定することはできない。
    ルイ ヴィトン 柄 2014 http://www.wtobrand.com/brand.html

  2. これは、いくつかの理由のために意味をなします。第一に、それはダイヤルの整理整頓しておきます。次に、あなた全員があなたの手首の腕時計を風がそれに保証されていないので、それはストレッチにフリップ時計の上のところを参照して、正確には、パワーリザーブが立つというのは、一日のスタート時にはそれを腕時計の箱からである。
    ルイ ヴィトン アイフォンケース ヴィヴィアン http://www.bagkakaku.com/bottegaveneta_wallet/2/zhuwen.html

  3. 私は、マット・デイモンのマークwatney文字ハミルトンカーキ・ネイビーを着ることを願って(ビットの方が好きですが、右か?)火星の上で生き残るためにしようとしているのを見てください。あなたは、火星のプロットをよく知っていないならば、それをあなたに説明させてください。基本的に、それは宇宙空間におけるロビンソンクルーソーの…。火星の上の(と、もちろん、地球のすべてを結集して一人の男の救出のための)。外国人または超自然的な生き物じゃありません。我々の英雄のための本当の敵は宇宙の冷たい現実の科学、物理学の法則。この映画は、恒星間のように、実際の宇宙飛行士がそれを書いたならば。偶然にも、ハミルトン腕時計映画は星間のかなり大きな役割を果たしている。
    ルイ ヴィトン アクセサリー メンズ http://www.ooobag.com/bag/prada/index_4.html

  4. カルティエの新モデルの構築と特徴で程度の腕時計には、長年にわたってことを予想するのは難しい事ではなかった。実際には、彼らの非常に高い程度のケースの端の部分は、同様の多くで使われます。スーパーコピー時計激安彼らは非常に異なる価格の実態的人口統計学を目標とするので、それらのモデルの基本的な口径のモデルとは異なる。このカルティエキャリバークロノグラフ「主流の贅沢な「キャリバー時計コレクションの第2版である。ケースのデザインはそのまま保存してから、元のクロノプッシャーの追加のために。
    ルイ ヴィトン 手帳 サイズ http://www.ooobrand.com/bags/prada/index.html

  5. We have quite a few couple of the short-term old ones,I found myself delighted while frontal contributed the particular small to come back,Irrrm a sucker for these. I can draw my pants on them simpler compared to more elevated Brazilian Virgin Hair…and of course they may be just like design together with awesome as ever!!!

  6. These people were any sweetest Brazilian Virgin Hair at the beginning i received so many kind comments on them. Then again, following in regards to thirty days approximately, negligence the Brazilian Virgin Hair higher than the option started foldable across without treatment i did not have it to live upright. I choose means they search usually they are in no way creased / folded, i absolutely finished giving him or her regardly and once this up and running going. They also looked effective according to shorts despite the fact that, nonetheless they seemed type comical over my very own pants simply because the flap from brazilian straight hair was just dangling above not to mention regarded particular random. Now, In my opinion in theory typically the press button has been a cute thought, they also just simply definitely altered design right after a small number gives that i’m undecided whether or not it’s fixable.

  7. 2、 这个惠及本市过半住宅小区的工程,加纳每年出口40多万立方米木材,都有着非常大的品牌影响力。高速公路、干线铁路和民用机场将覆盖20万人口以上的城市。 以消费医疗为例,39%;中型客车产销均为6. 同时对下一步壮大发展具有重要意义经销商们感受最为深刻。特别是西气东输、公路计重收费、医疗卫生、安全防护等方面。受到国内市场形势整体不振的影响, 在提交给全国人大常委会审议的食品安全法修订草案中。

  8. one or two places. select your measure, your drawing which is why your prevailing radiophone create mentally supplier make up one’s mind merely be exploitation on your constituent’s cover, as this mental faculty serve to cope your private thoughts on your physical structure necessarily a system advance, but it is a large conduct Louis Vuitton Outlet Stores louis Vuitton outlet Stores Louis Vuitton Outlet Online Louis Vuitton Outlet Online louis Vuitton Outlet online store Louis Vuitton Outlet Online infomation. Although thither are myriads of family are exploratory for bring down taxation. undergo if you can’t enter. forever encourage your children an education matchless by any quantity you trade. If it is national leader to buy a shelter. promise this nonfictional prose official document support you finished impost. name anything
    replica cartier tank solo uk

  9. 銈儫銉庨吀閰嶅垪銇壒鐣扮殑淇>銇嬨倝銇倞銆併偪銉炽儜銈唱妲嬮€犮伀銇娿亼銈嬫憘鍕曪紙澶栦贡锛夈倰瑕嬨仱銇戙倠銇熴倎銇紙銉椼儹銈般儵銉犮伄鍔┿亼銈掑€熴倞銇︼級浣跨敤銇欍倠銇撱仺銇屻仹銇嶃倠浠栥伄瀵捐┍鐨勩仾鍒嗗瓙銈般儵銉曘偅銉冦偗銈广倐銇傘倞銇俱仚銆?

  10. 绉併伅銆佷笉鑹畤鎵€銇亗銈娿伨銇椼仧锛佸垢銇勩仾銇撱仺銇銇儛銉冦偗銈儍銉椼伄銇熴倎銇?銇ゃ伄銈般儷銉笺儣銇優銈枫兂銇搞伄銈偗銈汇偣銈掓寔銇c仸銇勩仧銇椼€佸湴鍏冦伄鐢枫亴浠栥伄楂橀€熴倰淇銇欍倠銇撱仺銇屻仹銇嶃伨銇椼仧銇屻€併亗銇仧銇垢閬嬨仹銇仾銇勩亱銈傘仐銈屻伨銇涖倱銆?

  11. 銇撱倢銈夈伄銈般儷銉°儦銉冦儓銉曘兗銉夈倓銇婅彄瀛愩伅銆佷粬銇銇忋伄闁撱仹銉氥儍銉堛伄銈偆銈广偗銉兗銉犮€併偗銉冦偔銉笺€併儞銈广偙銉冦儓銆併偒銉冦儣銈便兗銈€併儦銈广儓銉兗銈掑惈銇裤伨銇欍€?

  12. 銈ㄣ兗銈搞偋銉炽儓锛熴偗銉┿偆銈兂銉堬紵銉戙兗銉堛儕銉硷紵銇濄倢銇ㄣ倐銆併倐銇c仺璎欒櫄銇€佽嚜鍒嗚嚜韬伀鑷俊銈掗紦鑸炪仐銆佹垚鍔熴仚銈嬨仧銈併伀銇傘仾銇熴伄銉夈儵銈ゃ儢銈掗珮銈併倠銇熴倎銇綍銇獚璀樸倰蹇呰銇ㄣ仐銇亜閬庡幓銇嫕鍒┿伄姘哥稓鐨勩仾銈枫兂銉溿儷銈掋€併仢銈屻倰淇濄仭銇俱仐銇熴€?

  13. 銇傘仾銇熴伅銆佸€嬩汉銇嬨倝銇偊銈с儞銉娿兗銇枔銇唱鐨勩仾銉曘偅銉笺儔銉愩儍銈倰寰椼倠銇撱仺銇屻仹銇嶃€併亗銇仧銇姇绁ㄣ倓椤у瑾挎熁銈掓彁渚涖仚銈嬨亾銇ㄣ伀銈堛仯銇︺€併偊銈с儞銉娿兗寰屻伄瀹氶噺鐨勩仾銉曘偅銉笺儔銉愩儍銈倰寰椼倠銇撱仺銇屻仹銇嶃伨銇欍€?

  14. Numerous writers feel that the content of their short
    article is their main concern. They spent their time in developing
    the best material for their post after elaborative research study.

    Lastly, in less than a minute they end up with the title.

    There are a couple of more steps including establishing accounts with the lenders, discovering
    an office to work out of, working with loan officers (if you decide
    to), and getting the fundamentals of your business set up.

    But this circumstance didn’t happen in a large business.
    Considered that you might count the company’s staff on one hand and not utilise all
    the fingers, it was more like the pinkie wasn’t working with the thumb.

    The next step is to find somebody to host your site. Again, places like GoDaddy have
    hosting plans for under $10 a month. HostGator.com is another really excellent hosting business, and is
    made use of by a number of “heavy player”, guru types, of internet marketing.
    If you have several web sites, the price cuts can go deeper.

    Tie up with other ebusiness owners. As they
    state, no guy is an island. If you tie up with individuals who are offering products and services that
    compliment yours, you’ll optimize your direct exposure in the online arena.

    Exactly what you can do is to get in an agreement where you and your partners will certainly cross offer your items to your particular customers.
    This can increase your sales without the have to spend more on your advertising campaign.
    I internet marketing found that it had not been that hard after all.
    I decided to shorten the knowing curve for you so you too
    can start hosting webinars yourself and doing this on a budget plan too.

    So you ask, if I do not have a site, how I publish an advertisement.

    Well this is the traffic broker principle. The web site has
    a “lead generator” based on the item you wish to promote.
    The lead generator produces 100 pertinent to your advertisement site leads at a time.
    You can produce as many as you desire. So, you as the broker, see each web site, and call
    the owner or administrator.
    The most intriguing thought that comes to my mind (the “numbers man”
    mindset is starting), is this: at exactly what point in the time-line will I have to find another world and coincident population to market to in order to grow my currently geometrically astronomical downline?
    I don’t believe the 6 billion or so individuals
    presently offered is going to be enough.

  15. When I initially left a comment I appear to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and from now on each time a comment is added I get 4 emails with
    the same comment. Perhaps there is a way you can remove me from that service?

  16. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates.
    I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and
    was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this.
    Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy
    reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

  17. I believe this is among the such a lot vital info for me.
    And i’m satisfied studying your article. But wanna statement on some common things,
    The web site taste is great, the articles is in point of
    fact excellent : D. Just right activity,

  18. Hmm it appears like your site ate my first comment
    (it was extremely long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I submitted and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog.

    I too am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to the whole thing.
    Do you have any helpful hints for beginner blog
    writers? I’d definitely appreciate it.

  19. The greatest suggestion that most brand-new your net biz owners
    can ever get their hands on would be to constantly beware
    on dealing with other individuals online. Because
    online marketing has actually taken the spotlight in the
    recent years, low life fraudsters have likewise seen it to be an excellent venue to swindle good and honest individuals’s cash.

    It is very hard to leave the security of a routine income and browse out something different.

    I took that gigantic leap of faith and I don’t regret it at
    all. In reality, I wonder why I didn’t say, “Enough suffices” a very long time ago.

    Comcast shot themselves in the foot with this step.
    In the past it did not matter to them. They had no competitors so they had absolutely nothing to run the risk
    of. Now nevertheless there is growing competitors.
    You have actually heard the stories. “2 geeks make groundbreaking stock investing system” or “previous investment banker might make millions off legal investing plan.” People,
    the stock investing robot applications hiding on the net
    are the largest ripoffs in the market place. These web pages
    normally count on the complete “white lie” marketing schemes to have you thinking that you are stumbling upon a
    quasi-legal ingenious knowledge that no one else has. all you are getting is a smack in the experience, and right here’s why!

    Prior to taking on the principles of effective advertisement writing,
    Usborne cited a statistic worth remembering: the average
    American is pounded with about 3,000 separate advertising messages a day.

    Multiplying that by 365, that’s over a million messages a
    I think everybody knows that it is not essential to get a prescribed internet marketing for fish oil nor does it have
    to be FDA approved. When was the last time you went to a seafood dining establishment and requested for the chefs Rx recommended catch of the day?
    The reason is that fish oil is food, not a drug.
    Organizational structure: The structure of your company must be most carefully satisfying the requirement of the marketplace.

    You can decide to have any structure that meets your requirements for providing your simpleness and
    ease in operation.
    The criminals at these stock investing robot websites attempt to pass this “software application” off as deserving $28,000 per license.
    I ask to vary. In reality, my great pal about at Student Trader researched
    the coding of a person of these programs and found it had not
    been a strategy at all. The system in question simply fetched a preloaded choice from
    a server the moment a day, pretending to do carry out along
    the method.

    1% Marketing & Web Design Champaign
    1702 Hedge Rd.
    Champaign, Illinois 61821
    (217) 383-0900

  20. I’ll right away clutch your rss as I can not to find your e-mail subscription hyperlink or newsletter service.
    Do you have any? Kindly permit me realize so
    that I could subscribe. Thanks.